Jhunie B. Wahayna
Able bodied Filipinos who are 17 to 22 years old are invited to take the Philippine Military Academy (PMA) or the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA), cadetship admission test to be conducted nationwide.
To qualify to the stringent cadet admission requirements for PMA and PNPA Class 2015, the applicant must be a natural born Filipino citizen, good moral character (no pending case/s), physically fit, must be single, must be at least 5 ft. 4 in. tall for male and 5 ft. 2 in. for female, at least a high school graduate, and able to perform the minimum requirements for physical fitness test.
For the PMA cadet admission test, the exam will be conducted on August 29.
Application forms are free and available at the nearest Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) units around the country or accessed through the internet at http://www.pma.ph where you can apply on-line. You can also download the application form on the said website, and after accomplishing, mail it to:
The Office of Cadet Admission (OCA), Philippine Military Academy, Fort del Pilar, Baguio City 2602, not later than two weeks before the scheduled examination date, together with the following: authenticated or NSO copy of your birth certificate and certified true copy of your High School Form 137, and 2 pieces 2” x 2” ID with white background. Applicants are advised to review their algebra, geometry, grammar and composition, reading comprehension, and verbal/numerical reasoning and pattern analysis lessons.
For the PNPA cadet admission test, the exam will be conducted on Nov.7. Application forms can be accessed through the internet at http://www.pnpa.edu.ph.
You can download the application form on the said website, and after accomplishing, submit it to: The Director, (Attn: Registrar), Philippine National Police Academy, Camp General Mariano N. Castaneda, 4219 Silang, Cavite, together with a self-stamped window envelope. The deadline for submission of the application will be on September 30, 2010. The coverage of examination will be communication skills, math and science, logical and reasoning ability, general information and current events, values and aptitude for the service.
While undergoing the 4-year cadetship program, both PMA and PNPA cadets will be receiving a monthly salary to meet education and training requirements such as uniforms, subsistence, books and other necessary expenditures.
PMA and PNPA cadets are recipient of a full government scholarship. Upon admission, they are entitled to receive a training pay and allowances.
Upon graduation from the Academy, PMA cadets are commissioned Second Lieutenants to the three major services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines as an officer in the Philippine Army (PA), Philippine Navy (PN), or in the Philippine Air Force (PAF). While PNPA cadets are commissioned Inspectors (equivalent to the rank of a lieutenants in the AFP) to the Philippine National Police (PNP), Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP), or in the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP).
The Philippine Military Academy (PMA) began on October 25, 1898 with the establishment of the Academia Militar in Malolos, Bulacan by virtue of a decree issued by the first president of the young Philippine Republic, General Emilio Aguinaldo.
Graduates were awarded regular commission in the armed forces. Its existence was short-lived, barely four months old, up to 20 January 1899, when hostilities between the Americans and Filipinos erupted.
While the Philippines was under American colonial rule, an officers’ school of the Philippine Constabulary was established at the Walled City of Intramuros in Manila on February 17, 1905.
It relocated three years later to Baguio City, initially at Camp Henry T. Allen, and subsequently at Teacher’s Camp, and then finally, due to the need of wider grounds, the academy moved to its present site at Fort Gregorio del Pilar.
The Philippine Legislature on September 8, 1926 passed Act No. 3496 renaming the school into the Philippine Constabulary Academy and lengthened its course from nine months to three years with provisions to strengthen the faculty and revise its curriculum.
On December 21, 1936, Commonwealth Act No. 1 (also known as the National Defense Act) was passed. The law formally created the Philippine Military Academy (PMA) and authorized it to confer a Bachelor of Science degree on its graduates after they successfully complete the four year course program.
The Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) was formally organized and activated on June 12, 1978 pursuant to Department of National Defense Order no. 83 issued on May 25, 1978. Fifty (50) PNPA cadets were admitted. On August 07, 1980, forty five (45) of them were conferred with Bachelor of Science in Public Safety (BSPS) degree after two years in the academy. They were the first graduates and the pioneer Maharlika Class 1980 of the PNPA.
In January 1997, the Bachelor of Science in Public Safety (BSPS) course was approved into a four year course program by the Board of Trustees of the Philippine Public Safety College (PPSC) who has the administration and supervision of the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA).
Today, the Philippine Military Academy (PMA) and the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) stands at the apex of transformation for the human development of the country’s finest military and public safety officers as it goes beyond the realm of its vision and mission. Both academies continuously take the lead in transforming the Cadet Corps towards its pledge. Good luck to all future examinees.
Jhunie B. Wahayna
The Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) or Youth Council is the governing body in every chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan (Youth Federation).
Each barangay in the Philippines is mandated by law to have its own chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan in which the members elect their officers called as the Sangguniang Kabataan. The Sangguniang Kabataan is an off-shoot of the Kabataang Barangay (KB) (Village Youth) which was abolished when the Local Government Code of 1991 was enacted.
The Sangguniang Kabataan is the youth legislature in every local village or community. It also initiates policies, programs and projects for the development of youth in their respective political territories. The chairman of the SK acts as the chief executive of the Sanggunian (council) while the Kagawad (councilor) as the legislative council. The Kagawads approve resolutions of the Sanggunian and appropriates the money allotted to the council, a share in the revenue of the barangay.
The chairman automatically sits in the Sangguniang Barangay (Village Council) as ex-officio member. He automatically gets chairmanship of the Committee on Youth and Sports, one of the standing committees in the village council. Every Sangguniang Kabataan is then federated into municipal and city federations, then city and municipal federations are federated into a provincial federation.
The barangay SK chairman represents the barangay in the municipal or city federation. The presidents of the city and municipal federation presidents becomes member of the provincial federation and the provincial federation president. The presidents of highly urbanized and independent component cities composed the membership in the national federation and elect the national federation president who automatically sits in the National Youth Commission as ex-officio member of the commission.
The Commission on Elections in an en banc resolution has set the dates for Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) voters’ registration to August 6, 2010 until August 15, 2010.
According to Comelec Resolution No. 9004, promulgated July 12, 2010, stressed on the value of having an “assembly of youth” in every barangay called the “Katipunan ng Kabataan,” its primary objective according to Article 202.
Rule XXVII of the Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of 1991, is to enhance the social, political, economic, cultural, intellectual, moral, moral, spiritual and physical development of the youth of the country.
Any Filipino citizen who are at least 5 but below 18 years of age and are residents of the Barangay where they intend to vote for at least six months, may register as member of the Katipunan ng Kabataan.
The applications for registration as members of the Katipunan ng Kabataan shall be filed from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. (including weekends), at the Office of the Election Officer of the city or in the municipality where the applicant resides.
Applicants must present any of the following documents when registering, to wit: A) certificate of live birth, B) baptismal certificate, C) school records or any other document that will establish his or her identity and other qualifications.
The community tax certificates (cedulas) and/or a certification from the barangay will not be honored by the Comelec in the said registration. All qualified youths are encouraged to register and to participate in the nation building of our country. I believed that young children are the future in the development of a progressive nation.
Jhunie B. Wahayna
The first bar exam was held in 1901, with 13 examinees, while the 2009 bar examination is the 108th bar exams with 6,080 examinees. The most notable bar exam was the 1999 bar examinations which recorded the lowest passing rate of 16.59% or with a total number of 660 successful examinees out of 3,978.
The 2007 bar exams would have been the all time low in terms of passing percentage if only then Chairman of the Committee of Bar Examiners Associate Justice Adolfo Azcuna has lowered the passing rate to 70% instead of the 75% general averaged. The reduction in the passing rate was ordered by Justice Azcuna as only 5 percent (only around 300) of the 5,626 who took the bar exams got the passing grade of 75%.
The Supreme Court adjusted the standard to 70 percent and the disqualification rate in 3 subjects (civil, labor and criminal law) from 50 to 45 percent thus resulting in a 22.91 passing rate or a survival of 1,289 lawyer examinees. The 2001 bar exams had the highest ever passing rate with 1,266 out of the 3,849 total examinees making a passing rate of 32.89%.
To pass the bar exam, a candidate must obtain a general average of 75 percent in all subjects with no grade falling below 50% in any bar subjects. In determining the general average, subjects in the examinations are given relative weights, the eight bar subjects are separately graded. Each subject contributes to the general average in the following proportion: Civil Law – 15%, Labor and Social Legislation – 10%, Mercantile Law – 15%, Criminal Law – 10%, Political and International Law – 15%, Taxation – 10%, Remedial Law – 20%, Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises – 5%, for a total of 100%.
The Five-Strike Rule was implemented since 2005. The rule limits to five the number of times a candidate may take the bar exams. The rule disqualifies a candidate after failing in three examinations. However, he is permitted to take fourth and fifth examinations if he or she successfully completes a one year refresher course for each examination.
The Supreme Court appoints memberships in the Committee of Bar Examiners, their official task is to formulate bar exam questions, instituting policy directives, executing procedures, grading bar examination papers, and releasing the results of the annual bar examination.
The committee is chaired by an incumbent Justice of the Supreme Court, who is designated by the Supreme Court to serve for a term of one year. The members of the committee include eight members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines, who also hold office for a term of one year. While the Justice who shall act as Chairman is immediately known, committee members must exert every effort to conceal their identities until the oath-taking of the successful bar examinees, approximately six months after the bar exam. Bar examinations are generally essay-type, but examiners have thrown in a few multiple choice questions over the years.
According to Supreme Court spokesman Jose Midas Marquez, a Supreme Court justice wants to incorporate more multiple choice-type of tests in next year’s 2011 bar examination.
He said 2011 Bar Examination Committee Chairman Associate Justice Roberto Abad made the proposal to better test the knowledge of aspiring lawyers on Codal provisions. This proposal came about after consultation with deans from various law schools. The multiple choice will focus on Codal provision. It is very difficult for an examiner in an essay type exam to determine if an examinee knows the Codal provision. Good luck to all future examinees.
Jhunie B. Wahayna
Starting July 06, 2010, all the senior citizens in the country will enjoy additional discounts. The Department of Social Works and Development (DSWD) has signed the implementing rules on the law granting senior citizens exemption from the value-added tax (VAT).
The guideline signed by the DSWD is the implementing rules and regulations of Republic Act 9994 or the Expanded Senior Citizen Act of 2010, which was published on June 21, 2010 on national daily newspapers.
Under the new law, senior citizens are exempted from 12% VAT, thus allowing them to fully enjoy the 20% discount on essential goods and services, including but not limited to food, medicines, and professional fees of doctors. Prior to the implementation of the Expanded Senior Citizen Act, they were only able to enjoy 8% of the supposed 20% discount because of the VAT.
With the implementation of the law, senior citizens will also be able to get discount on fares for land, air and sea travel, as well as hotel stay, admission to theaters and movie houses, concerts and similar leisure activities.
There is also a provision in the law that allows a 5% discount on monthly water and electricity bills as long as the household meters are registered under the senior citizen’s name and consumption does not exceed 100 per kilowatt hour for electricity, and 30 cubic meters for water.
Indigent or non-pensioner senior citizens will also be entitled to a monthly pension of P500, free medical insurance and disability insurance through Phil Health, and burial assistance worth P2,000.
Every senior citizen in the world deserves some slack. They have worked so hard and paid their dues to society, it is the society’s turn to serve them. However, some businesses, because of low margins and/or greed totally refuse to comply with the law or have drafted internal regulations undermining it.
The senior citizens are like soldiers who refuse to die or fade away. Some of them have united and has started to fight back due to number of establishments have been reported to adamantly refuse to provide the benefits in part or in full. A number of senior citizens have even refused to avail of the Senior Citizens Card claiming that the refusals to provide them with the benefits have caused public spats and embarrassments because it made them look like beggars.
Looking at the provisions of the law, penalties for violations of the law are as follows: P 50,000 to 100,000 and imprisonment of 6 months to 2 years for the first violation. P 100,000 to P200,000 and imprisonment of 2 to 6 years for the succeeding violations.
The measure also expands the penalties for establishments that refuse to grant the benefits. Establishments found violating the law, including their owners, managers and personnel, may be fined a penalty of not less than P10,000 but not more than P50,000, or imprisonment of not less than a month but not more than six months.
The law, right or wrong, is the law. Until it is repealed, there is nothing we can do but give to Ceasar what belongs to him. The law must be applied to all establishments who will violate Republic Act 9994, and who will not respect and give discount to our senior citizens.
Jhunie B. Wahayna
Money, they say is the root of all evils. But it’s not the money itself but the obsession to acquire it by all means has motivated a person to do evil things such as: murder, robbery, swindling, plunder, graft and corruption, lying, stealing of people’s money, betrayal of public trust, cheating just to stay in power, conspiracy, using the name of God for money making scheme, and among others. If your goal in life is to become rich from a questionable source, your direction towards life is evil.
People should not consider money as their master but rather their servant. If you make money your God, it will plague you like the devil and there will be no peace in your life according to an ancient saying. A person’s character is known in how he treats money. If a man runs after money he’s greedily mad. If he gets it without working, he’s a parasite. If he gets it through anomalous means he’s an evil.
Certainly to become wealthy is not morally wrong. If your wealth comes from legitimate means through honest dealings, you will certainly enjoy the privilege of going anywhere with your head up high and with a clear conscience. Such noble legacy will not only be shared to anyone but to the future generations to come as well. It is the heart that makes a man rich and to become a (real) rich is a summation of honest hard work.
Live your life as simple as you are. Don’t do evil what others do. Don’t do evil what others say, just listen to them but do what you feel good and comfortable. After all you are the one dictating the pacing of your life to be upright. If your wealth commands you, then you are poor indeed.
The statement of Sen. Juan Ponce Enrile during a Senate Inquiry for the investigation of then the NBN/ZTE scandal was good, and I quote “kung minsan ang kalokohan ay nagiging katotohanan at ang katotohanan ay nagiging kalokohan” (sometimes the foolishness becomes the truth and the truth becomes the foolishness). This statement is absolutely true and undoubtedly a reality. Those greedy and deceitful politicians tweak and twist the lie and convinced the people to accept it as the truth.
The aborted National Broadband Network (NBN) project must serve as a lesson to the greedy government officials especially the incoming ones. According to the Senate Inquiry, the $329 million (P16.4 billion at the exchange rate of P50 to $1 at the time it was negotiated) was over priced by $130 million (P 6.5 billion).
This amount according to a health group is more than half of the entire budget of the Department of Health and more than five times the budget of the Philippine General Hospital. It could have funded 49,000 open-heart surgeries; 325,000 cataract surgeries, and purchased antibiotics for 6,500,000 people. It can also educate millions from the out of school youth Filipinos.
The worst, if the project was not cancelled; these 6.5 billion pesos will only go to the pocket of one or two person. This amount is a loan to be paid by all Filipino people through taxes. This greedy act of a few government officials will affect the life of the masses that will be more affected more than anyone else. Our children to be, and the next generation to come will suffer the consequences of their greediness and lies.
Even if they “moderate their greed” the evil deed was still there. And evil according to the dictionary is the violation of the moral customs or principles. There is no agreement about whether evil is a matter of social custom or correct principle that overrides custom. Evil is usually contrasted with good. In some religion, evil is an active force, often personified as an entity such as Satan or Lucifer.
If you live on “evil wealth” acquired through greediness and lies, the only equalizer between you and the poorest of the poor is that you cannot bring your billion of pesos with you if you die. Death is the equalizer to all humanity.
Jhunie B. Wahayna
A devil’s advocate is someone who takes a position he or she does not necessarily agree with for the sake of argument. This process can also be used to test the quality of the original argument and identify weaknesses in its structure.
During the canonization process of the Roman Catholic Church, the Promoter of the Faith (Latin: promotor fidei), popularly known as the Devil’s advocate (Latin: advocatus diaboli), is a canon lawyer appointed by Church authorities to argue against the canonization of the candidate.
It is his or her job to take a skeptical view of the candidate’s character, to look for holes in the evidence, to argue that any miracles attributed to the candidate were fraudulent, etc. The Devil’s advocate opposes God’s advocate (Latin: advocatus Dei; also known as the Promoter of the Cause), whose task is to make the argument in favor of canonization. This task is now performed by the Promoter of Justice (promotor iustitiae), who is in charge of examining how accurate is the inquiry on the saintliness of the candidate.
The office was established in 1587 during the reign of Pope Sixtus V and eliminated by Pope John Paul II in 1983. This reform changed the canonization process helping Pope John Paul II to usher in an unprecedented number of elevations: nearly 500 individuals were canonized and over 1,300 were beatified during his tenure as Pope as compared to only 98 canonizations by all his 20th-century predecessors.
Such a dramatic increase suggests that the office of the Devil’s Advocate had served to reduce the number of canonizations. Some argue that it served a useful role in ensuring that canonizations did not proceed without due care and hence the status of sainthood was not easily achieved. In cases of controversy, the Vatican may still seek to informally solicit the testimony of critics of a candidate for canonization.
The British born American columnist Christopher Hitchens was famously asked to testify against the beatification of Mother Teresa in 2002, a role he would later humorously describe as being akin to “representing the Evil One, as it were, pro bono”.
In modern Christian cultures, a devil also known as satan or lucifer is said to be the infamous figurehead of all evil. He is popularly given many descriptions: he has horns, a forked tail, and a forked tongue. He’s sometimes beast-like, hairy, repulsive, and fire-breathing. He is the commander of the underworld – the land of the dead – and causes death and destruction.
He is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God – and also the one who spoke through the serpent and seduced Eve into disobeying God’s command. His ultimate goal is to lead people away from the love of God – to lead them to fallacies which God opposes. The Devil is also identified as the accuser of Job, the tempter in the Gospels, the secret power of lawlessness in 2 Thessalonians 2:7, and the dragon in the Book of Revelation.
Before his insurrection, the devil was among the highest of all angels and the “brightest in the sky”. His pride is considered a reason why he would not bow to God as all other angels did, but sought to rule heaven himself. The popularly held beliefs that the Devil was once a prideful angel who eventually rebels against God, however, are barely portrayed explicitly in the Bible and are mostly based on inference (e.g., Ezekiel 28 and Isaiah 14:12-17).
In mainstream Christianity he is called “the ruler of the demons” (Matt. 12:24), “the ruler of the world” and “the god of this world”. (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how the devil will be cast out of Heaven, down to the earth, having “great anger” and waging war against “those who obey God’s commandments and hold to the testimony of Jesus”. Ultimately, the devil is thrown into the “lake of fire” (Revelation 20:10), not as ruler, but as one among many, being tormented day and night for all eternity.
In other Christian beliefs (e.g. the beliefs of the Christadelphians) the word “devil” in the Bible is not regarded as referring to a supernatural, personal being but to any “adversary” and figuratively refers to human sin and temptation.
Switch to our mobile site